Ich denke das ist eher das…

Acrosin activity was determined using a gelatinolysis technique in 100-microliter semen aliquots of 114 patients (normozoospermia, n = 90; asthenozoospermia, n = 12; oligozoospermia, n = 10; polyzoospermia, n = 2) attending an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program. Halo diameter, halo formation rate, and a calculated acrosin activity index correlated significantly with the IVF rates (P = 0.0054, r = 0.396; P = 0.0009, r = 0.401; and P = 0.0003, r = 0.428, respectively). In cases where the halo diameter was < 10 microns and halo formation rate was < 60%, all patients were subfertile or infertile, that is, they showed poor or no fertilization in vitro, respectively. The assay demonstrated a relatively low sensitivity: 25.7% for halo diameter, 37.1% for halo formation rate, and 25.7% for acrosin activity index, respectively. This might be attributed to other sperm functional aspects, such as disturbed acrosome reaction or impaired zona binding.

Quelle: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7559161 (muss mal schauen, ob ich an den Artikel komme)

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Abstract;We tried to evaluate the proteolytic activity of spermatozoa using film in situ zymography (FIZ) and decide on the indication of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) before in vitro fertilization (IVF). Spermatozoa were obtained from 86 patients including 22 in whom IVF was done in our fertility clinic after fully obtaining informed consent. We classified them into two groups, high rate of fertilization group (A: more than 70%), and low rate of fertilization group (B: under 15%). After all sperm were treated with the percoll gradient method, one drop of sperm (10’5′-10’6′ spermatozoa/ml) was placed on the film, and incubated at 37.DEG.C. for 20 min, then double staining was performed in Ponceau-R and hematoxylin solution. When gelatin was digested enzymatically, the red gelatin stain disappears and becomes transparent. The activation rate on FIZ was lower in group B than in group A. A distinct correlation was recognized between the activation rate on FIZ and the fertilization rate with conventional IVF. However there was no correlation between the activation rate on FIZ, and concentration, motility or abnormal morphology of sperm. The activation rate on FIZ of the group (more than 15% of sperm penetration assay, SPA) is higher than one of the group (under 15% of SPA). In this study we demonstrated that the activation of sperm heads by gelatin were low or disappeared in the sperm with low numbers or low motility, and they also showed low fertilization rates in IVF. These results demonstrated that FIZ is a useful method to determine the need for ICSI in the case of IVF. We conclude that it is also good for a patient psychologically and economically to decide on the necessity of ICSI before IVF. (author abst.)

Quelle: http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200621/000020062106A0785530.php

Zwischen März 1984 und Januar 1985 wurde die Akrosinaktivität routinemäßig bei 189 infertilen Männern bestimmt. Neben der Samenanalyse wurden mikrobiologische Untersuchungen durchgeführt, der Postkoitaltest, der In-vitro-Spermatozoen-Penetrationstest und die Bestimmung von Spermaantikörpern im Serum. Die engste positive Korrelation der Akrosinaktivität bestand zur Spermatozoenmotilität, -anzahl, -morphologie, -vitalität und zum Spermavolumen. Bei Paaren mit pathologischem Postkoitaltest war die Akrosinaktivität signifikant vermindert, auch bei Patienten, die eine gute Spontanmotilität im Sperma aufwiesen. Ein ähnliches Ergebnis zeigte sich im In-vitro-Penetrationstest: Eine verminderte Spermienanzahl und eine reduzierte Spermienbeweglichkeit in der Kapillare nach 2 Stunden waren signifikant häufiger bei herabgesetzter Akrosinaktivität. Raucher wiesen niedrigere Akrosinkonzentrationen bei normaler Spermienanzahl und Motilität auf. Die Gruppe der infertilen Männer hatte signifikant niedrigere Akrosinaktivitäten als die Gruppe der Männer, deren Frauen innerhalb von 2 Jahren konzipierten. Aufgrund unserer Untersuchungen erscheint die routinemäßige Akrosinbestimmung im Rahmen der Infertilitätsdiagnostik nicht erforderlich. Bei Paaren mit ungeklärter Sterilität erhält man jedoch zusätzliche prognostische Informationen.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1989.tb02385.x/abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of sperm acrosin activity on the IVF-ET outcome.

METHODS: We analyzed sperm parameters, morphology and acrosin activity for 909 infertile husbands by computer-assisted self-assessment (CASA), modified Papanicolaou staining and N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), respectively, and detected the rates of fertilization, cleavage, quality embryos, embryo cryopreservation, implantation, clinical pregnancy and abortion. The wives were identified as normal or with mere oviduct problems.

RESULTS: The rate of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility, vitality, rapid progressive velocity and concentration were significantly lower in the abnormal acrosin activity group than in the normal one (P < 0.01). Significant positive correlations were observed between acrosin activity and the above-mentioned semen parameters (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the number of retrieved eggs, the rates of cleavage, quality embryos, embryo cryopreservation, non-embryo transfer cycles and miscarriages, and the number of transferred embryos between the two groups (P > 0.05). The fertilization rate, the percentage of transfer cycles with only 1 embryo and the rate of implantation and clinical pregnancy were notably higher in the normal acrosin activity group than in the abnormal one (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Sperm acrosin activity is closely related with semen parameters, and it helps to predict the sperm fertilizing capacity and IVF-ET outcome.

Quelle: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288742

To evaluate the predicting value of sperm acrosin activity in human, the acrosin activity index (AAI) was measured in 95 semen samples from patients participating in an IVF program. All patients had at least two mature oocytes. Of 95 patients, 84 had successful fertilization and 11 failed to fertilize all oocytes in vitro. The numbers of mature oocytes were similar between fertilization and nonfertilization groups. The mean AAI, measured using a commercially available (Accu-Sperm) acrosin activity assay, was greater in the fertilization group than in the nonfertilization group, but the difference was not significant. There was no correlation between AAI and the in vitro fertilization rate of mature oocytes. The relation between AAI and semen parameters also showed no significant difference. It would appear that measurement of AAI inaccurately reflects in vitro fertilizability of human sperm.

Quelle: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8122931 (1994)

The aim of the study described here was to determine the possible contribution of the acrosin activity test to routine semen analysis in enhancing the precision of the prognosis of IVF success in a group of patients in which the contribution of the egg factor to infertility was ruled out (20 cases) compared to a control IVF group (39 cases). Semen analysis, acrosin activity and acrosome ultrastructure were determined for all semen samples. The group with high fertilization rates was comprised of normozoospermic patients while the group with low fertilization rates was comprised of astheno-teratozoospermic patients. The mean acrosin level of the positive IVF group was significantly higher than that of the negative group (51.7 ± 33.2 and 28.6 ±13.7, respectively). Two parameters: per cent motile spermatozoa and acrosin level, were found to have a significant positive correlation with subsequent successful IVF (r = 0.36, P < 0.006; r = 0.37, P < 0.004, respectively); and agenesis of the acrosome was found to have a significant negative correlation (r = -0.33, P < 0.01). The ability of these parameters to correctly predict fertilization success was 59%, with 5% false positive, among which 15.4% was predicted solely by the acrosin level (above 54 μIU 106 cells−1) and 23% solely by per cent motile spermatozoa (above 50%). Abnormalities of the acrosome ultrastructure did not contribute further to the correct classification. The apparent clinical benefit of the acrosin level test is discussed.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1994.tb00746.x/abstract

Acrosin, a sperm proteinase released during acrosomal exocytosis, facilitates penetration through the oocyte vestments. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a correlation exists between the acrosin activity of ejaculated human spermatozoa, before motility enrichment techniques, and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) success using selected (glass wool or swim-up) spermatozoa. Since all the oocytes were retrieved from women receiving exogenous hormonal stimulation and a mixed population of mature and immature oocytes were encountered, only cases with ≥50% mature oocytes were analysed. Under these conditions, the acrosin activity was significantly greater (P < 0.01) in the ejaculates in which spermatozoa ultimately fertilized <70% of the mature oocytes, than in the ejaculates in which spermatozoa ultimately fertilized ≥70% of the mature oocytes. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.962, P = 0.0001) was detected between pre-IVF acrosin activity and subsequent high (≥70%) IVF success. Acrosin activity from normozoo-spermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men was also compared and was significantly (P < 0.01) higher for the normozoo-spermic group. These data suggest that measurement of acrosin activity may be a valuable clinical laboratory assay for assessing the sperm fertilizing potential and that low acrosin activity is associated with abnormal semen characteristics.

Quelle: http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/2/253.short

The aim of the study described here was to determine the possible contribution of the acrosin activity test to routine semen analysis in enhancing the precision of the prognosis of IVF success in a group of patients in which the contribution of the egg factor to infertility was ruled out (20 cases) compared to a control IVF group (39 cases). Semen analysis, acrosin activity and acrosome ultrastructure were determined for all semen samples. The group with high fertilization rates was comprised of normozoospermic patients while the group with low fertilization rates was comprised of astheno-teratozoospermic patients. The mean acrosin level of the positive IVF group was significantly higher than that of the negative group (51.7 ± 33.2 and 28.6 ±13.7, respectively). Two parameters: per cent motile spermatozoa and acrosin level, were found to have a significant positive correlation with subsequent successful IVF (r = 0.36, P < 0.006; r = 0.37, P < 0.004, respectively); and agenesis of the acrosome was found to have a significant negative correlation (r = -0.33, P < 0.01). The ability of these parameters to correctly predict fertilization success was 59%, with 5% false positive, among which 15.4% was predicted solely by the acrosin level (above 54 μIU 106 cells−1) and 23% solely by per cent motile spermatozoa (above 50%). Abnormalities of the acrosome ultrastructure did not contribute further to the correct classification. The apparent clinical benefit of the acrosin level test is discussed.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1994.tb00746.x/abstract

Summary. It was suggested that although not related to the standard semen parameters the level of the acrosin enzyme system is related to the fertility potential in men. Recently a simple clinical assay for total acrosin level was recommended for routine semen analysis. The improved clinical assay was analysed on the freshly liquified semen of 198 Astheno-teratozoospermic men and compared with the routine semen parameters including biochemical data and the ultrastructure of the acrosome. Only the sum of the per cent of live, motile, and normal-shaped spermatozoa had positive significant and reasonably high correlation with the acrosin level (r = 0.382, P < 0.0001). Each characteristic exhibits significant but low (< 0.35) correlation. Similarly negative significant and reasonably high correlation was obtained between the acrosin level and the sum of the principle acrosomal malformations observed by TEM (r = 0.396, P < 0.0001) while lower negative correlation was found only with agenesis or loss of the acrosome. Acrosin levels below 8.1 μIU 10−6 cells were obtained in 4 specimens with above 80% round-form associated with more than 95% of agenesis of the acrosome. The possible significance of the low correlation obtained between the acrosin levels and seminal plasma zinc levels, malformations in the acrosomal equatorial region, and the presence of white blood cells is also discussed. We concluded that the acrosin activity reflects an aspect of male fertility which is not diagnosed by the routine semen analysis or by the ultrastructure of the acrosome, and is therefore a useful diagnostic sperm parameter.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1993.tb02683.x/abstract

Summary Acrosin activity of spermatozoa from infertile patients and fertile volunteers was measured. Acrosin activity of spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients and patients with unexplained infertility was lower than that from fertile volunteers. We utilize the zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration test to select candidates for conventional in vitro fertilization among unexplained infertile patients. The zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration test, however, requires several hours and special equipment which are not used in the clinical setting. It is preferable that other sperm function tests or a combination of them can replace this test. Thus three distinct tests of sperm function, namely, acrosin activity, Penetrak® test, hypo-osmotic swelling test, were compared with the hamster test, using spermatozoa from patients with unexplained infertility.

A combination of the Penetrak® test and measurement of acrosin activity could predict the results of the zona-free hamster egg sperm penetration test with 88.2% accuracy. Thus, the hamster test should be done when either Penetrak® test or measurement of acrosin activity showed abnormal values.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1997.tb00471.x/abstract

Summary. Spermatozoa pelleted after swim-up were frozen and then analysed in batches for acrosin activity, using a spectrophotometric method, and expressed as μIU μg DNA−1. A total of 259 sperm samples were analysed and the acrosin activity compared with fertilization in vitro. Of these, 224 samples fertilized at least one oocyte and 35 samples failed to fertilize any oocyte. Analysis by Student’s t-test indicated that there was a statistically significant difference (P=0.02) in acrosin activity between the two groups. However, when samples that failed to fertilize were matched for concentration, motility and normal morphology with samples that fertilized, this significance was lost (P=0.77). It is concluded that total acrosin in pelleted sperm frozen after regular swim-up, does not correlate with fertilizing ability of spermatozoa used for insemination.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0272.1996.tb02813.x/abstract

Acrosin (ACR), a serine proteinase located in the acrosome of the sperm, has been presumed to be involved in the recognition and binding of the sperm to the zona pellucida of the ovum and the sperm penetration through the zona pellucida. To examine the function of acrosin in vivo, we have generated mice carrying a mutation at the acrosin locus (Acr) through targeted disruption in embryonic stem (ES) cells. One chimeric male and female transmitted the targeted gene through their germ line. Homozygous Acr+/− mice are fertile and yield litters comparable in number and size to those of Acr+/− mice. These data show that sperm of the homozygous Acr+/− mice are able to penetrate the zona pellucida, fertilize the ovum, and produce viable offspring. However, spermatozoa lacking acrosin protein show a delayed fertilization. One chimeric male which contained the targeted gene in 20% of its sperm transmitted only the Acr+ allele to its progeny. Furthermore, in vitro fertilization with equally mixed sperm cells of Acr+/− and Acr+/− mice resulted in fertilization only with the Acr+ sperm cells. Incubation of oocytes with Acr+ or Acr sperm show that the Acr sperm are faster to fertilize the oocytes than the Acr+ sperm cells. These results suggest that Acr sperm have a selective disadvantage when they are in competition with Acr+ sperm. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 46:370–376, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Quelle: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291098-2795%28199703%2946:3%3C370::AID-MRD16%3E3.0.CO;2-2/abstract

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between protamine deficiency, and acrosomal integrity with fertilization and pregnancy rate in patients undergone in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Material &Methods: Semen samples from 70 infertile couples undergoing IVF at Isfahan Fertility and Infertility center were assessed in this study. Semen analysis was carried out according to WHO criteria. Protamine deficiency, Sperm morphology and acrosin activity were assessed by Chromomycin A3 (CMA3), Papanicolaou staining and Gelatinolysis tests, respectively. Coefficients of correlation and student t-test were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5) and Pvalue lower than 0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: Fertilization rate, percentage of halo formation, mean halo diameter and abnormal morphology show a significant correlation with percentage of CMA3 positivity. CMA3 positivity, percentage of halo, mean halo and sperm morphology showed a significant correlation with fertilization rate. Among the aforementioned parameters percentage of halo had the highest correlation. In the present study patients were divided into two groups according to pregnancy status. None of the studied parameters were significantly different between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. However, percentage of halo formation showed a slightly significant difference (r=0.306; P=0.05 8 ) .
Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that, even though sperm morphology, sperm protamine content and acrosome formation are events related to spermiogenesis, sperm acrosomal integrity assessed by percentage of halo formation has more profound effect on fertilization rate and pregnancy outcome during IVF procedure.

Quelle: http://www.sid.ir/en/ViewPaper.asp?ID=85000&varStr=5;TAVALAEI%20M.,RAZAVI%20SH.,NASRESFAHANI%20MOHAMMAD%20HOSSEIN;INTERNATIONAL%20JOURNAL%20OF%20FERTILITY%20AND%20STERILITY;SPRING%202007;1;1;27;34 und pdf: link

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